|Multiplier||Tolerance||Temp. Coefficient (ppm/K)|
Resistors use preferred numbers for their specific values, which are determined by their tolerance. These values repeat for every decade of magnitude: 6.8, 68, 680, and so forth. In the E24 series the values are related by the 24th root of 10, while E12 series are related by the 12th root of 10, and E6 series by the 6th root of 10. The tolerance of device values is arranged so that every value corresponds to a preferred number, within the required tolerance.
Zero ohm resistors are made as lengths of wire wrapped in a resistor-shaped body which can be substituted for another resistor value in automatic insertion equipment. They are marked with a single black band.
The 'body-end-dot' or 'body-tip-spot' system was used for radial-lead (and other cylindrical) composition resistors sometimes still found in very old equipment; the first band was given by the body color, the second band by the color of the end of the resistor, and the multiplier by a dot or band around the middle of the resistor. The other end of the resistor was colored gold or silver to give the tolerance, otherwise it was 20%.
Capacitors may be marked with 4 or more colored bands or dots. The colors encode the first and second most significant digits of the value, and the third color the decimal multiplier in picofarads. Additional bands have meanings which may vary from one type to another. Low-tolerance capacitors may begin with the first 3 (rather than 2) digits of the value. It is usually, but not always, possible to work out what scheme is used by the particular colors used. Cylindrical capacitors marked with bands may look like resistors.
|Color||Significant digits||Multiplier||Capacitance tolerance||DC working voltage||Operating temperature||EIA/vibration|
|Black||0||1||—||—||?55 °C to +70 °C||10 to 55 Hz|
|Red||2||100||±2%||—||?55 °C to +85 °C||—|
|Yellow||4||10000||—||—||?55 °C to +125 °C||10 to 2000 Hz|
|Blue||6||1000000||—||—||?55 °C to +150 °C||—|